1) Great overview of many systemic issues which funnel patients to emergency departments, by Annals of Emergency Medicine Editor in Chief Mike Callaham*:
The Prudent Layperson’s Complicated and Uncertain Road to Urgent Care
2) We can't discern low acuity diagnoses from chief complaints, by Maria Raven, Robert Lowe, Judith Maselli, and Renee Hsia in JAMA:
Comparison of Presenting Complaint vs Discharge Diagnosis for Identifying “ Nonemergency” Emergency Department Visits
3) Low acuity ED visits is just not where the money is, by Peter Smulowitz, Leah Honigman and Bruce Landon, in Annals of EM:
A novel approach to identifying targets for cost reduction in the emergency department.
4) EDs aren't overcrowded because of low acuity patients; we are busy because of boarding -- patients we have seen & admitted in the ED and are waiting for their inpatient beds. (tons on this, here's one on how boarding-> crowding in Annals by Brent Asplin et al A conceptual model of emergency department crowding, and 2 of my blog posts 4A) here and 4B) here).
5) And for those who suggest higher patient copays for low acuity ED visits, the famous RAND HIE, which shows that patients who have to spend more out of pocket decrease *all* care, both appropriate & inappropriate care (which isn't surprising, given Raven's study, above):
Here are a few studies that show that retail clinics tend to *increase* rather than decrease overall utilization (suggesting something like supply induced demand) and fail to lower (and probably increase!) ED use:
6) Why Retail Clinics Do Not Substitute for Emergency Department Visits and What This Means for Value-Based Care by Jesse Pines in Annals
7) Retail Clinic Visits For Low-Acuity Conditions Increase Utilization And Spending by J Scott Ashwood, Martin Gaynor, Claude Setodji, Rachel Reid, Ellerie Weber, and Ateev Mehrotra in Health Affairs. From what I hear from people who run EDs which opened urgent cares etc, the same holds true, but I don't have great data on that.
8) Surprise! Uninsured people don't use the ED any more than those with insurance; rather, they use it the same. But, they use other health care less. By Ruohua Annetta Zhou, Katherine Baicker, Sarah Taubman, and Amy Finkelstein in Health Affairs:
The Uninsured Do Not Use The Emergency Department More—They Use Other Care Less
UPDATE 12/18/2017 & 12/25/2017
9) Another great new paper from Maria Raven and Faye Steiner: 1 in 4 patients in the ED were referred from an outpatient provider (and they're more likely to be admitted than other ED patients):
A National Study of Outpatient Health Care Providers' Effect on Emergency Department Visit Acuity and Likelihood of Hospitalization
10) and while finding (9) I found this great review by Raven et al in Annals showing ED visit reduction programs generally don't work:
The Effectiveness of Emergency Department Visit Reduction Programs: A Systematic Review
11) another British review showing putting "unscheduled care centres (UCC)" in the ED doesn't solve much, by Shammi Ramlakhan, Suzanne Mason, Colin O'Keeffe, Alicia Ramtahal, Suzanne Ablard in EMJ
Primary care services located with EDs: a review of effectiveness
12) This great episode of EM Over Easy on fundamental attribution error
13) David Foster Wallace's This Is Water.
The basic idea: when I cut someone off in traffic, I make excuses for myself (I'm late to work, the light is changing, etc etc) but when someone cuts me off, of course I think they're just a jerk. The less I judge patients for being in the ED, the less stress I have.
14) And here are my 2 blog posts on crowding:
A Spoon in the Bucket?
Empty the Dishwasher
*COI: I am Social Media Editor for Annals which makes Mike my boss.